electrolytic corrosion is not taking place. Any waveguide that is exposed to the weather should be painted
and all joints sealed. Proper painting prevents natural corrosion, and sealing the joints prevents moisture
from entering the waveguide.
Moisture can be one of the worst enemies of a waveguide system. As previously discussed, the
dielectric in waveguides is air, which is an excellent dielectric as long as it is free of moisture. Wet air,
however, is a very poor dielectric and can cause serious internal arcing in a waveguide system. For this
reason care is taken to ensure that waveguide systems are pressurized with air that is dry. Checking the
pressure and moisture content of the waveguide air may be one of your daily system maintenance duties.
More detailed waveguide installation and maintenance information can be found in the technical
manuals that apply to your particular system. Another good source is the Electronics Installation and
Maintenance Handbooks (EIMB) published by Naval Sea Systems Command. Installation Standards
Handbook EIMB, NAVSEA 0967-LP-000-0110, is the volume that deals with waveguide installation and
Q-41. What is the result of an abrupt change in the size, shape, or dielectric of a waveguide?
Q-42. A waveguide bend must have what minimum radius?
Q-43. What is the most common type of waveguide joint?
Q-44. What is the most likely cause of losses in waveguide systems?
The discussion of waveguides, up to this point, has been concerned only with the transfer of energy
from one point to another. Many waveguide devices have been developed, however, that modify the
energy in some fashion during transit. Some devices do nothing more than change the direction of the
energy. Others have been designed to change the basic characteristics or power level of the
This section will explain the basic operating principles of some of the more common waveguide
devices, such as DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS, CAVITY RESONATORS, and HYBRID JUNCTIONS.
The directional coupler is a device that provides a method of sampling energy from within a
waveguide for measurement or use in another circuit. Most couplers sample energy traveling in one
direction only. However, directional couplers can be constructed that sample energy in both directions.
These are called BIDIRECTIONAL couplers and are widely used in radar and communications systems.
Directional couplers may be constructed in many ways. The coupler illustrated in figure 1-53 is
constructed from an enclosed waveguide section of the same dimensions as the waveguide in which the
energy is to be sampled. The "b" wall of this enclosed section is mounted to the "b" wall of the waveguide
from which the sample will be taken. There are two holes in the "b" wall between the sections of the
coupler. These two holes are 1/4! apart. The upper section of the directional coupler has a wedge of
energy-absorbing material at one end and a pickup probe connected to an output jack at the other end. The
absorbent material absorbs the energy not directed at the probe and a portion of the overall energy that
enters the section.