Q24. In figure 3-27, which waveforms on the left have a resultant wave of zero, and what is indicated by
Q25. On an open-ended transmission line, the voltage is always zero at what distance from each end of
TERMINATING A TRANSMISSION LINE
A transmission line is either NONRESONANT or RESONANT. First, let us define the terms
nonresonant lines and resonant lines. A nonresonant line is a line that has no standing waves of current
and voltage. A resonant line is a line that has standing waves of current and voltage.
A nonresonant line is either infinitely long or terminated in its characteristic impedance. Since no
reflections occur, all the energy traveling down the line is absorbed by the load which terminates the line.
Since no standing waves are present, this type of line is sometimes spoken of as a FLAT line. In addition,
because the load impedance of such a line is equal to Z0, no special tuning devices are required to effect a
maximum power transfer; hence, the line is also called an UNTUNED line.
A resonant line has a finite length and is not terminated in its characteristic impedance. Therefore
reflections of energy do occur. The load impedance is different from the Z0 of the line; therefore, the input
impedance may not be purely resistive but may have reactive components. Tuning devices are used to
eliminate the reactance and to bring about maximum power transfer from the source to the line.
Therefore, a resonant line is sometimes called a TUNED line. The line also may be used for a resonant or
A resonant line is sometimes said to be resonant at an applied frequency. This means that at one
frequency the line acts as a resonant circuit. It may act either as a high-resistive circuit (parallel resonant)
or as a low-resistive circuit (series resonant). The line may be made to act in this manner by either open-
or short-circuiting it at the output end and cutting it to some multiple of a quarter-wavelength.
At the points of voltage maxima and minima on a short-circuited or open-circuited line, the line
impedance is resistive. On a short-circuited line, each point at an odd number of quarter-wavelengths
from the receiving end has a high impedance (figure 3-31, view A). If the frequency of the applied
voltage to the line is varied, this impedance decreases as the effective length of the line changes. This
variation is exactly the same as the change in the impedance of a parallel-resonant circuit when the
applied frequency is varied.
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