2-3Figure 2-1.—Frequency response curve of audio amplifier.Notice in the figure that the lower frequency limit is labeled f_{1} and the upper frequency limit islabeled f_{2}. Note also the portion inside the frequency-response curve marked "BANDWIDTH." You maybe wondering just what a "bandwidth" is.BANDWIDTH OF AN AMPLIFIERThe bandwidth represents the amount or "width" of frequencies, or the "band of frequencies," thatthe amplifier is MOST effective in amplifying. However, the bandwidth is NOT the same as the band offrequencies that is amplified. The bandwidth (BW) of an amplifier is the difference between thefrequency limits of the amplifier. For example, the band of frequencies for an amplifier may be from 10kilohertz (10 kHz) to 30 kilohertz (30 kHz). In this case, the bandwidth would be 20 kilohertz (20 kHz).As another example, if an amplifier is designed to amplify frequencies between 15 hertz (15 Hz) and 20kilohertz (20 kHz), the bandwidth will be equal to 20 kilohertz minus 15 hertz or 19,985 hertz (19,985Hz). This is shown in figure 2-1.Mathematically:You should notice on the figure that the frequency-response curve shows output voltage (or current)against frequency. The lower and upper frequency limits (f_{1} and f_{2}) are also known as HALF-POWERPOINTS. The half-power points are the points at which the output voltage (or current) is 70.7 percent ofthe maximum output voltage (or current). Any frequency that produces less than 70.7 percent of themaximum output voltage (or current) is outside the bandwidth and, in most cases, is not considered auseable output of the amplifier.The reason these points are called "half-power points" is that the true output power will be half (50percent) of the maximum true output power when the output voltage (or current) is 70.7 percent of themaximum output voltage (or current), as shown below. (All calculations are rounded off to two decimalplaces.)As you learned in NEETS, Module 2, in an a.c. circuit true power is calculated using the resistance(R) of the circuit, NOT the impedance (Z). If the circuit produces a maximum output voltage of 10 voltsacross a 50-ohm load, then: