Figure 2-25.Crystal filter used in the IF section of a superheterodyne receiver.
The capacitance that exists between the crystal holder plates (C3) may bypass unwanted signals
around the crystal; therefore, some method must be provided to balance out this capacitance. You
accomplish circuit balancing by applying out-of-phase voltages to neutralize any undesired signal
voltages. The tap on L3 permits proper impedance matching and is the balanced input to the next stage.
Q23. What does a tone control circuit in a receiver do to the audio signal?
Q24. What is the function of a crystal filter in a receiver?
Automatic Frequency Control
Afc circuits are used in situations where you must accurately control the frequency of an oscillator
by some external signal. Basically, this type circuit does two things: It senses the difference between the
actual oscillator frequency and the frequency that is desired and produces a control voltage proportional
to the difference; it also uses the control voltage to change the oscillator to the desired frequency. Afc
circuits are used to control the frequency of sinusoidal oscillators and nonsinusoidal oscillators. Only
sinusoidal afc circuits will be covered here. Afc circuits are used in radio receivers, fm transmitters, and
frequency synthesizers to maintain frequency stability. Figure 2-26 is a block diagram illustrating afc
operation in a receiver. Lets run through the applicable parts of this block diagram.