2-16METHODS OF FREQUENCY MODULATION.—The circuit shown earlier in figure 2-6 and thediscussion in previous paragraphs were for illustrative purposes only. In reality, such a circuit would notbe practical. However, the basic principle involved (the change in reactance of an oscillator circuit inaccordance with the modulating voltage) constitutes one of the methods of developing a frequency-modulated wave.Reactance-Tube Modulation.—In direct modulation, an oscillator is frequency modulated by aREACTANCE TUBE that is in parallel (SHUNT) with the oscillator tank circuit. (The terms "shunt" or"shunting" will be used in this module to mean the same as "parallel" or "to place in parallel with"components.) This is illustrated in figure 2-11. The oscillator is a conventional Hartley circuit with thereactance-tube circuit in parallel with the tank circuit of the oscillator tube. The reactance tube is anordinary pentode. It is made to act either capacitively or inductively; that is, its grid is excited with avoltage which either leads or lags the oscillator voltage by 90 degrees.Figure 2-11.—Reactance-tube fm modulator.When the reactance tube is connected across the tank circuit with no modulating voltage applied, itwill affect the frequency of the oscillator. The voltage across the oscillator tank circuit (L1 and C1) is alsoin parallel with the series network of R1 and C7. This voltage causes a current flow through R1 and C7. IfR1 is at least five times larger than the capacitive reactance of C7, this branch of the circuit will beessentially resistive. Voltage E_{1}, which is across C7, will lag current by 90 degrees. E1is applied to thecontrol grid of reactance tube V1. This changes plate current (I_{p}), which essentially flows only throughthe LC tank circuit. This is because the value of R1 is high compared to the impedance of the tank circuit.Since current is inversely proportional to impedance, most of the plate current coupled through C3 flowsthrough the tank circuit.At resonance, the voltage and current in the tank circuit are in phase. Because E_{1} lags E by 90degrees and Iis in phase with grid voltage E_{1}, the superimposed current through the tank circuit lags theoriginal tank current by 90 degrees. Both the resultant current (caused by I_{p}) and the tank current lag tankvoltage and current by some angle depending on the relative amplitudes of the two currents. Because thisresultant current is a lagging current, the impedance across the tank circuit cannot be at its maximumunless something happens within the tank to bring current and voltage into phase. Therefore, this situationcontinues until the frequency of oscillations in the tank circuit changes sufficiently so that the voltagesacross the tank and the current flowing into it are again in phase. This action is the same as would beproduced by adding a reactance in parallel with the L1C1 tank. Because the superimposed current lagsvoltage E by 90 degrees, the introduced reactance is inductive. In NEETS, Module 2, Introduction to

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