1-11 is referred to as the MODULATED WAVE and is the waveform that is transmitted through space. When the modulated wave is received and demodulated, the original component waves (carrier and modulating waves) are reproduced with their respective frequencies, phases, and amplitudes unchanged. Modulation of a carrier can be achieved by any of several methods. Generally, the methods are named for the sine-wave characteristic that is altered by the modulation process. In this module, you will study AMPLITUDE MODULATION, which includes CONTINUOUS-WAVE MODULATION. You will also learn about two forms of ANGLE MODULATION (FREQUENCY MODULATION and PHASE MODULATION). A special type of modulation, known as PULSE MODULATION, will also be discussed. Before we present the methods involved in developing modulation, you need to study a process that is essential to the modulation of a carrier, known as heterodyning. To help you understand the operation of heterodyning circuits, we will begin with a discussion of LINEAR and NONLINEAR devices. In linear devices, the output rises and falls directly with the input. In nonlinear devices, the output does not rise and fall directly with the input. LINEAR IMPEDANCE Whether the impedance of a device is linear or nonlinear can be determined by comparing the change in current through the device to the change in voltage applied to the device. The simple circuit shown in view (A) of figure 1-4 is used to explain this process. Figure 1-4A.—Circuit with one linear impedance. First, the current through the device must be measured as the voltage is varied. Then the current and voltage values can be plotted on a graph, such as the one shown in view (B), to determine the impedanceof the device. For example, assume the voltage is varied from 0 to 200 volts in 50-volt steps, as shown in view (B). At the first 50-volt point, the ammeter reads 0.5 ampere. These ordinates are plotted as point ain view (B). With 100 volts applied, the ammeter reads 1 ampere; this value is plotted as point b. As these steps are continued, the values are plotted as points c and d. These points are connected with a straight line to show the linear relationship between current and voltage. For every change in voltage applied to the device, a proportional change occurs in the current through the device. When the change in current is proportional to the change in applied voltage, the impedance of the device is linear and a straight line is developed in the graph.