3-243.The instantaneous voltages (oscilloscope displays) are the same in all cases except that a phasedifference exists in the displays seen at different points along the line. The phase changescontinually with respect to the generator until the change is 360 degrees over a certain length ofline.4.All parts of a sine wave pass every point along the line. A plot of the readings of an ac meter(which reads the effective value of the voltage over a given time) taken at different points alongthe line shows that the voltage is constant at all points. This is shown in view C of figure 3-22.5.Since the line is terminated with a resistance equal to Z_{0}, the energy arriving at the end of theline is absorbed by the resistance.VELOCITY OF WAVE PROPAGATIONIf a voltage is initially applied to the sending end of a line, that same voltage will appear later somedistance from the sending end. This is true regardless of any change in voltage, whether the change is ajump from zero to some value or a drop from some value to zero. The voltage change will be conducteddown the line at a constant rate.Recall that the inductance of a line delays the charging of the line capacitance. The velocity ofpropagation is therefore related to the values of L and C. If the inductance and capacitance of the rf lineare known, the time required for any waveform to travel the length of the line can be determined. To seehow this works, observe the following relationship:Q = ITThis formula shows that the total charge or quantity is equal to the current multiplied by the time thecurrent flows. Also:Q = CEThis formula shows that the total charge on a capacitor is equal to the capacitance multiplied by thevoltage across the capacitor.If the switch in figure 3-23 is closed for a given time, the quantity (Q) of electricity leaving thebattery can be computed by using the equation Q = IT. The electricity leaves the battery and goes into theline, where a charge is built up on the capacitors. The amount of this charge is computed by using theequation Q = CE.

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