In the HYBRID IC, the passive components (resistors, capacitors) are deposited onto a substrate
(foundation) made of glass, ceramic, or other insulating material. Then the active components (diodes,
transistors) are attached to the substrate and connected to the passive components using fine wire.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q1. THROUGH Q42.
A5. Quality control.
A6. Positive, more positive.
A7. Because the N material on one side of the forward-biased junction is more heavily doped than the
A8. The P or base section.
A9. 98 percent.
A11. The polarity of voltage applied to the PNP transistor is opposite of that applied to the NPN
A12. I B.
A13. The base current loop and the collector current loop.
A15. Compensation for slight variations in transistor characteristics and changes in transistor
conduction because of temperature variations.
A16. The signals are opposite in polarity or 180 degrees out of phase with each other.
A17. The polarity of the source voltage.
A18. Base current bias or fixed bias.
A20. When it is necessary to prevent amplitude distortion.
A21. The voltage-divider type.
A22. Class A.