A hybrid microcircuit is one that is fabricated by combining two or more circuit types, such as film
and semiconductor circuits, or a combination of one or more circuit types and discrete elements. The
primary advantage of hybrid microcircuits is design flexibility; that is, hybrid microcircuits can be
designed to provide wide use in specialized applications, such as low-volume and high-frequency circuits.
Several elements and circuits are available for hybrid applications. These include discrete
components that are electrically and mechanically compatible with ICs. Such components may be used to
perform functions that are supplementary to those of ICs. They can be handled, tested, and assembled
with essentially the same technology and tools. A hybrid IC showing an enlarged chip is shown in figure
Figure 1-18.Hybrid IC showing an enlarged chip.
Complete circuits are available in the form of UNCASED CHIPS (UNENCAPSULATED IC DICE).
These chips are usually identical to those sold as part of the manufacturer's regular production line. They
must be properly packaged and connected by the user if a high-quality final assembly is to be obtained.
The circuits are usually sealed in a package to protect them from mechanical and environmental stresses.
One-mil (0.001-inch), gold-wire leads are connected to the appropriate pins which are brought out of the
package to allow external connections.
Q22. Name the two types of monolithic IC construction discussed.