1-3 GENERATION OF SINE WAVES Since numbers represent individual items in a group, arrows can be used to represent quantities that have magnitude and direction. This may be done by using an arrow and a number, as illustrated in figure 1-1, view (A). The number represents the magnitude of force and the arrow represents the direction of the force. Figure 1-1A.—Vectors representing magnitude and direction. View (B) illustrates a simpler method of representation. In this method, the length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of force, and the direction of force is indicated by the direction of the arrow. Thus, if an arrow 1-inch long represents 50 pounds of force, then an arrow 2-inches long would represent 100 pounds of force. This method of showing both magnitude and direction is called a VECTOR. To more clearly show the relationships between the amplitude, phase, and frequency of a sine wave, we will use vectors. + Figure 1-1B.—Vectors representing magnitude and direction.

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