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Figure 2-52.Block diagram of quantizer and pcm coder.

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2-52 Figure 2-52.—Block diagram of quantizer and pcm coder. The pcm demodulator will reproduce the correct standard amplitude represented by the pulse-code group. However, it will reproduce the correct standard only if it is able to recognize correctly the presence or absence of pulses in each position. For this reason, noise introduces no error at all if the signal-to-noise ration is such that the largest peaks of noise are not mistaken for pulses. When the noise is random (circuit and tube noise), the probability of the appearance of a noise peak comparable in amplitude to the pulses can be determined. This probability can be determined mathematically for any ration of signal-to-average- noise power. When this is done for 10 5 pulses per second, the approximate error rate for three values of signal power to average noise power is: 17 dB — 10 errors per second 20 dB — 1 error every 20 minutes 22 dB — 1 error every 2,000 hours Above a threshold of signal-to-noise ration of approximately 20 dB, virtually no errors occur. In all other systems of modulation, even with signal-to-noise ratios as high as 60 dB, the noise will have some effect. Moreover, the pcm signal can be retransmitted, as in a multiple relay link system, as many times as desired, without the introduction of additional noise effects; that is, noise is not cumulative at relay stations as it is with other modulation systems. The system does, of course, have some distortion introduced by quantizing the signal. Both the standard values selected and the sampling interval tend to make the reconstructed wave depart from the original. This distortion, called QUANTIZING NOISE, is initially introduced at the quantizing and coding modulator and remains fixed throughout the transmission and retransmission processes. Its magnitude can be reduced by making the standard quantizing levels closer together. The relationship of the quantizing noise to the number of digits in the binary code is given by the following standard relationship: Where: n is the number of digits in the binary code


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