Figure 1-16.Moving-vane meter movement.
These meters are generally used at 60-hertz ac, but may be used at other ac frequencies. By changing
the meter scale to indicate dc values rather than ac rms values, moving-vane meters will measure dc
current and dc voltage. This is not recommended due to the residual magnetism left in the vanes, which
will result in an error in the instrument.
One of the major disadvantages of this type of meter movement occurs due to the high reluctance of
the magnetic circuit. This causes the meter to require much more power than the DArsonval meter to
produce a full scale deflection, thereby reducing the meters sensitivity.
HOT-WIRE AND THERMOCOUPLE METER MOVEMENTS
Hot-wire and thermocouple meter movements both use the heating effect of current flowing through
a resistance to cause meter deflection. Each uses this effect in a different manner. Since their operation
depends only on the heating effect of current flow, they may be used to measure both direct current and
alternating current of any frequency on a single scale.
The hot-wire meter movement deflection depends on the expansion of a high-resistance wire caused
by the heating effect of the wire itself as current flows through it. (See fig. 1-17.) A resistance wire is
stretched taut between the two meter terminals, with a thread attached at a right angle to the center of the
wire. A spring connected to the opposite end of the thread exerts a constant tension on the resistance wire.
Current flow heats the wire, causing it to expand. This motion is transferred to the meter pointer through
the thread and a pivot.