Rapid development has resulted in increased reliability and availability, reduced cost, and higher
LARGE-SCALE (lsi) and VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATION (vlsi) allow thousands of
elements in a single chip.
MONOLITHIC ICs are produced by the diffusion or epitaxial methods.
DIFFUSED elements penetrate the substrate, EPITAXIAL do not.
ISOLATION is a production method to prevent unwanted interaction between elements within a
THIN-FILM ELEMENTS are produced through EVAPORATION or CATHODE
THICK-FILM ELEMENTS are screened onto the substrate.
The most common types of packages for ICs are TO, FLAT PACK, and DUAL INLINE.