1-7Q8.What is the MSD and LSD of the following numbers(a)420.(b)1045.06(c)0.0024(d)247.0001Carry and Borrow PrinciplesSoon after you learned how to count, you were taught how to add and subtract. At that time, youlearned some concepts that you use almost everyday. Those concepts will be reviewed using the decimalsystem. They will also be applied to the other number systems you will study.ADDITIONAddition is a form of counting in which one quantity is added to another. Thefollowing definitions identify the basic terms of addition:AUGENDThe quantity to which an addend is addedADDENDA number to be added to a preceding numberSUMThe result of an addition (the sum of 5 and 7 is 12)CARRYA carry is produced when the sum of two or more digits in a vertical column equals orexceeds the base of the number system in useHow do we handle the carry; that is, the two-digit number generated when a carry is produced? Thelower order digit becomes the sum of the column being added; the higher order digit (the carry) is addedto the next higher order column. For example, let’s add 15 and 7 in the decimal system:Starting with the first column, we find the sum of 5 and 7 is 12. The 2 becomes the sum of the lowerorder column and the 1 (the carry) is added to the upper order column. The sum of the upper ordercolumn is 2. The sum of 15 and 7 is, therefore, 22.The rules for addition are basically the same regardless of the number system being used. Eachnumber system, because it has a different number of digits, will have a unique digit addition table. Theseaddition tables will be described during the discussion of the adding process for each number system.A decimal addition table is shown in table 1-1. The numbers in row X and column Y may representeither the addend or the augend. If the numbers in X represent the augend, then the numbers in Y mustrepresent the addend and vice versa. The sum of X + Y is located at the point in array Z where theselected X row and Y column intersect.

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