SKIN EFFECTThe tendency for alternating current to concentrate in the surface layer of a
conductor. The effect increases with frequency and serves to increase the effective resistance
of the conductor.
SLOTNarrow opening in a waveguide wall used to couple energy in or out of the waveguide.
Also called an aperture or a window.
SPROCKET TUNERMechanical tuning device for magnetron tubes that changes the
frequency of the cavities by changing the inductance. Also called a crown-of-thorns tuner.
STAGGER TUNINGA method of klystron tuning in which the resonant cavities are tuned to
slightly different frequencies to increase the bandwidth of the amplifier.
STANDING WAVE RATIOThe ratio of the maximum to the minimum amplitudes of
corresponding components of a field, voltage, or current along a transmission line or
waveguide in the direction of propagation measured at a given frequency.
SYNCHRONOUS TUNINGIn a klystron amplifier, a method of tuning which tunes all the
resonant cavities to the same frequency. High gain is achieved, but the bandwidth is narrow.
TRANSIT TIMEThe time an electron takes to cross the distance between the cathode and
TRANSVERSE ELECTRIC MODEThe entire electric field in a waveguide is perpendicular
to the wide dimension and the magnetic field is parallel to the length. Also called the TE
TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC MODEThe entire magnetic field in a waveguide is per-
pendicular to the wide dimension ("a" wall) and some portion of the electric field is parallel
to the length. Also called the TM mode.
TUNNELINGThe piercing of a potential barrier in a semiconductor by a particle (current
carrier) that does not have sufficient energy to go over the barrier.
TUNNEL DIODEA heavily doped junction diode that has negative resistance in the forward
direction over a portion of its operating range. See NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE ELEMENT.
VARACTORA pn-junction semiconductor designed for microwave frequencies in which the
capacitance varies with the applied bias voltage.
VARIABLE ATTENUATORAn attenuator for reducing the strength of an ac signal either
continuously or in steps, without causing signal distortion.
VELOCITY MODULATIONModification of the velocity of an electron beam by the
alternate acceleration and deceleration of electrons.
VERTICAL PLANEAn imaginary plane that is perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
WAVEGUIDEA rectangular, circular, or elliptical metal pipe designed to transport
electromagnetic waves through its interior.
WAVEGUIDE MODE OF OPERATIONParticular field configuration in a waveguide that
satisfies the boundary conditions. Usually divided into two broad types: the transverse
electric (TE) and the transverse magnetic (TM).