MICROELECTRONICS is a broad term used to describe the use of integrated circuits to
miniaturize electronic equipment.
A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) is a flat, insulating surface upon which printed wiring and
miniaturized components are connected in a predetermined design and attached to a common base.
MODULAR CIRCUITRY is an assembly technique in which printed circuit boards are stacked and
connected together to form a module. This technique increases the packaging density of circuit
components and results in a considerable reduction in the size of electronic equipment.
An INTEGRATED CIRCUIT is a device that integrates (combines) both active components
(transistors, diodes, etc.) and passive components (resistors, capacitors, etc.) of a complete electronic
circuit in a single chip.
The two basic types of ICs are the HYBRID and the MONOLITHIC.
In the MONOLITHIC IC, all elements (resistors, transistors, etc.) associated with the circuit are
fabricated inseparably with a continuous piece of material (called the substrate).