Figure 2-4.Transistor constructions.
Point-contact transistors are now practically obsolete. They have been replaced by junction transistors,
which are superior to point-contact transistors in nearly all respects. The junction transistor generates less
noise, handles more power, provides higher current and voltage gains, and can be mass-produced more
cheaply than the point-contact transistor. Junction transistors are manufactured in much the same manner as
the PN junction diode discussed earlier. However, when the PNP or NPN material is grown (view B), the
impurity mixing process must be reversed twice to obtain the two junctions required in a transistor.
Likewise, when the alloy-junction (view C) or the diffused-junction (view D) process is used, two junctions
must also be created within the crystal.
Although there are numerous ways to manufacture transistors, one of the most important parts of any
manufacturing process is quality control. Without good quality control, many transistors would prove
unreliable because the construction and processing of a transistor govern its thermal ratings, stability, and
electrical characteristics. Even though there are many variations in the transistor manufacturing processes,
certain structural techniques, which yield good reliability and long life, are common to all processes: (1)
Wire leads are connected to each semiconductor electrode; (2) the crystal is specially mounted to protect it
against mechanical damage; and (3) the unit is sealed to prevent harmful contamination of the crystal.
Q1. What is the name given to the semiconductor device that has three or more elements?
Q2. What electronic function made the transistor famous?
Q3. In which direction does the arrow point on an NPN transistor?
Q4. What was the name of the very first transistor?
Q5. What is one of the most important parts of any transistor manufacturing process?