ACCEPTOR IMPURITYAn impurity which, when added to a semiconductor, accepts one electron
from a neighboring atom and creates a hole in the lattice structure of the crystal. Also called
ALLOYED JUNCTIONA junction formed by recrystallization of a molten region of P-type material
on an N-type substrate, or vice versa.
ALPHAThe emitter-to-collector current gain in a common-base circuit.
AMPLIFICATIONThe ratio of output magnitude to input magnitude in a device that is intended to
produce an output that is an enlarged reproduction of its input.
AMPLIFICATION FACTORThe voltage of an amplifier with no load on the output.
AMPLIFIERThe device that provides amplification (the increase in current, voltage, or power of a
signal) without appreciably altering the original signal.
AMPLITUDE DISTORTIONDistortion that is present in an amplifier when the amplitude of the
output signal fails to follow exactly any increase or decrease in the amplitude of the input signal.
ANODEA positive electrode of an electrochemical device (such as a primary or secondary electric
cell) toward which the negative ions are drawn.
AVALANCHE EFFECTA reverse breakdown effect in diodes that occurs at reverse voltage beyond 5
volts. The released electrons are accelerated by the electric field, which results in a release of more
electrons in a chain or "avalanche" effect.
BASEThe element in a transistor that controls the flow of current carriers.
BETAThe ratio of a change in collector current to a corresponding change in base current, when the
collector voltage is constant in a common-emitter circuit.
BREAKDOWNThe phenomenon occurring in a reverse-biased semiconductor diode. The start of the
phenomenon is observed as a transition from a high dynamic resistance to one of substantially lower
dynamic resistance. This is done to boost the reverse current.
CAPACITOR FILTERThis filter is used on extremely high-voltage, low current power supplies and
also where the ripple frequency is not critical.
CATHODEThe negative terminal of a forward-biased semiconductor diode that is the source of the
CHOKEAn inductor used to impede the flow of pulsating dc or ac by means of self-inductance.
CLASS A AMPLIFIER OPERATIONThe amplifier is biased so that variations in input signal
polarities occur within the limits of cutoff and saturation.